Ciconia ciconia   (Linnaeus,  1758) (Bird)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Aves

Image copyrights: wildanimalsonline

Size: standing c. 106 cm to top of head.

A long-legged, long-necked, egret-like bird, all white except for the longer scapulars and wing quills which are black. Legs and heavy pointed bill red. Feathers of head, neck and breast long and lanceolate. Sexes alike. Immature- Like adult, but the black parts are brown or tinged brown and some of the shorter scapulars have brown centres. Nestling (in down), snow white, with blackish bill and grey legs and feet.

Habits: Parties or small flocks by jheels and in marshy fields, etc. Stalks along sedately in search of food on marshy grassland, freshly drained fallow or moist fields ploughed for winter crops.

Breeding: Extralimital. season- March to may. Nest- a large stick latform placed on buildings, chimney stacks, cliffs or tall trees near human habitations. Eggs 3 to 5, pure white.

Synonym (s)
Ardea ciconia (Linnaeus, 1758)

Common Name (s)
• European White Stork (English)
• White Stork (English)
• Laglag, Haji laq laq, Ujli, Dhak, Gybar, Badda retwa (English)
• Ujali, Safed dhonk (Gujrati)
• Pandhra karkocha, Shwet balak (Marathi)
• Wadumi konga (Telugu)
• Vanbakam (Malayalam)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(Hunted for food and sport during migration)

Habitat:  Estuarine
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Frogs, reptiles, crustaceans, young rodents, occasionally fish
IUCN Status:  Least Concern


• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.33) (Long: 75.96) INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.66) (Long: 76.18) INDIA
• Delhi, Okhla barrage bird sanctuary INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Nameer, PO (2005) Wetlands and waterfowl conservation in kerala with special reference to Ramsar sites kerala environment congress 2005 Centre for environment and development 97-112 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Wild Animals Online Available at -
  • Vernacular names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent Buceros, Envis newsletter: Avian Ecology & Inland Wetlands 62pp Available at -
  • Manakadan R and Pittie A (2001) Standardized English names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent BUCEROS Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetland 6(1) 26pp Available at -
  • Kumar A, sati JP and Tak CK (2003) Checklist of Indian Waterbids Buceros Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetlands 8(1) 30pp Available at -
  • Ali S and Ripley SD (1968) Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan Oxford university press 1 1-368pp Available at - NIO
  • Sivaperuman C and Jayson EA (2000) Birds of Kol wetland, Thrissur, Kerala Zoo's print journal 15(10) 344-349pp Available at -
  • Urfi AJ (2003) The birds of Okhla barrage bird sanctuary, Delhi, India Forktail 19 39-50pp Available at -

Page last updated on:2012-08-06

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