Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus   (Bloch,  1790) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Size: Max length 76.0 cm TL (male/unsexed)

Color: Variable, mainly purple brown with white or blue spots of various types.

A small serranid fish, its depth 2.8 to 3.0 times in standard length. Preoperculum with rounded and serrated edge, the serrae scarcely enlarged at angle; operculum with three flat spines, the middle spine nearer to lower than to upper spine. Maxillary (upper jaw) extending to below posterior border of eye. A pair of short canines on each side of symphysis in each jaw; teeth villiform, those on lower jaw at middle of sides in 3 rows. Dorsal fin with 11 spines and 15 or 16 soft rays, the last spines increasing in length to the 3rd or 4th. Anal fin with 3 spines and 8 soft rays. Pectoral fin as long as postorbital part of head. Caudal fin rounded. Scales ctenoid.

Protogynous, external fertilization, nonguarders, open water/substratum egg scatterers.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Serranus tumilabris Day (nec Valenciennes), 1875
Serranus hoevenii Bleeker: Day, 1889
Serranus dermochirus Valenciennes : Day, 1875
Epinephelus hoevenii (Bleeker, 1849)
(Junior synonym)
Epinephelus ongus (non Bloch, 1790)
(Misapplied name)
Epinephelus summana (non Forsskal, 1775)
(Misapplied name)
Holocentrus coeruleopunctatus Bloch, 1790
(Senior synonym)
Serranus alboguttatus Valenciennes, 1828
(Junior synonym)
Serranus dermochirus Valenciennes, 1830-32
(Junior synonym)
Serranus flavoguttatus Peters, 1855
(Junior synonym)
Serranus hoevenii Bleeker, 1849
(Junior synonym)
Serranus kunhardtii Bleeker, 1851
(Junior synonym)

Common Name (s)
• Whitespotted Grouper (English)
• Snowflake Grouper (English)
• Snowy Grouper (English)
• Rock Cod (English)
• Ocellated Rock Cod (English)
• Garrupa (English)
• White Spotted Reef Cod (English)
• Chammam (Malayalam)
• Fana (Mahl)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(The species appears vulnerable due to overfishing. Also it appears to prefer certain types of corals (branching or tabular forms). The effects on populations of coral loss from climate change, pollution or reef destruction from physical forces is unknown.)

Habitat:  Reef Associated
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Feeds on fish and crustaceans
IUCN Status:  Least Concern


• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre Available at - http://www.unep-wcmc.org/
  • Letourneur, Y; Chabanet, P; Durville, P; Taquet, M; Teissier, E; Parmentier, M; Quero, JC and Pothin, K (2004) An updated checklist of the marine fish fauna of Reunion Island, south-western Indian Ocean Cybium 28(3) 199-216
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Varghese, M; Manisseri, MK; Ramamurthy, N; Geetha, PM; Thomas, VJ and Gandhi, A (2011) Coral reef fishes of Gulf of Mannar, S.E of India Fishing Chimes CMFRI 31(1) 38-40 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2011-06-14

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