Epinephelus spilotoceps   Schultz,  1953 (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Size: 30 cm.

Color: The head and body mostly covered with dark spots forming a pale mesh; front part of head with small black or dark brown spots; 4 dark saddle-blotches on dorsal part of body (first at base of last 4 dorsal spines, last on caudal peduncle), the 2 middle blotches usually less distinct than the first and last blotches; median fins with dark spots as on body; pectoral and pelvic fins with small, faint, dark spots.

Body depth contained 3.1 to 3.5 times in standard length, much less than head length; caudal peduncle depth distinctly less than length of second anal spine. Preopercle finely serrate, the serrae at angle covered with skin; rear nostrils subequal to front nostrils; maxilla not reaching much past vertical at rear edge of orbit; midlateral part of lower jaw with 3 or 4 rows of teeth; lower gillrakers 14 to 17. Dorsal fin with 11 spines and 15 soft rays; anal fin with 3 spines and 8 soft rays; pectoral rays 18 or 19; caudal fin rounded. Pored lateral line scales 60 to 67; lateral scale series 91 to 94; body scales ctenoid, except for those on belly.

Protogynous, external fertilization, nonguarders, open water/substratum egg scatterers.

Synonym (s)
Epinephelus salonotus Smith and Smith, 1963
Epinephelus spiloteceps Schultz, 1953

Common Name (s)
• Four Sadddle Grouper (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Gamefish. Marketed fresh.)

Habitat:  Reef Associated
IUCN Status:  Least Concern


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, North Reef Island INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Rao, DV; Devi, K and Rajan, PT (2000) An account of ichthyofauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 178 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 1-434 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Letourneur, Y; Chabanet, P; Durville, P; Taquet, M; Teissier, E; Parmentier, M; Quero, JC and Pothin, K (2004) An updated checklist of the marine fish fauna of Reunion Island, south-western Indian Ocean Cybium 28(3) 199-216
  • Durville, P; Chabanet, P and Quod, JP (2003) Visual Census of the Reef Fishes in the Natural Reserve of the Glorieuses Islands (Western Indian Ocean) Western Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci. WIOMSA 2 95-104
  • Chabanet, P and Patrick, D (2005) Reef Fish Inventory of Juan De Novas Natural Park (Western Indian Ocean) Western Indian Ocean Journal Marine Sciences 2005 WIOMSA 4 145-162
  • Allen, GR and Mohammed, A (2003) Coral Reef Fishes of Indonesia Zoological Studies 42(1) 26299 Available at - Digital Information Resource Center, Pune.
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 4 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ad468e/ad468e00.HTM#Contents
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Rao, GC; Rao, DV and Devi, K (1994) A faunal exploration of the North Reef Island sanctuary, North Andaman Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 10(1&2) 68-81 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2011-02-10

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