Diagramma pictum   (Thunberg,  1792) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Sultanate of Oman

Size: Maximum 100 cm; common to 45 cm.

Color: Dusky grey to blackish overall and usually marked with darker spots especially on the fins. Juveniles greyish white with about 8 longitudinal brown bands, extending onto head where they converge towards snout, spots in adults; in large specimens the spots may become small or indistinct, sometimes faint yellow spots on head.

This robust fish has an oblong and somewhat compressed body with its caudal peduncle noticeably slender and elongate. The mouth is rather small and terminal and is surrounded by thick fleshy lips; 6 pores on chin behind lower lip. Band of villiform teeth in jaws, in 4 or 5 rows, with an outer row of enlarged teeth but no canines. The well developed fins include a single dorsal fin with 9-11 spines with the second spine much longer than the first and 21-26 soft rays, an anal fin with 3 spines plus 7 rays, and a square to emarginate caudal fin. Scales small, ctenoid, 82 to 117 in lateral series. Caught by handlines, traps, bottom longlines and trawls.

Synonym (s)
Perca picta Thunberg, 1792
Diagramma pictum Day, 1875
Diagramma punctatum Ruppell : Day, 1875
Spilotichthys pictus Munro, 1955
Plectorhynchus pictus (Thunberg, 1792)
Diagramma pictus (Thunberg, 1792)
Plectorrhinchus pictum (Thunberg, 1792)
Spilotichthys pictus (Thunberg, 1792)
Plectorhinchus pictus (Thunberg, 1792)

Common Name (s)
• Sweetlip (English)
• Slatey Sweetlips (English)
• Sailfin Rubberlip (English)
• Pointed Sweet Lip (English)
• Painted Sweetlips (English)
• Painted Rubberlip (English)
• Hotya (Marathi)
• Harvil (Marathi)
• Grunt (English)
• Painted Sweettip
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, marketed mainly fresh and frozen)

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Shrimps, polychaetes, crabs, bottom invertebrates and fishes


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands (Lat: 10) (Long: 93) INDIA
• Gulf of Oman
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA (Record: 08/2000-07/2003)
• Kerala INDIA
• Bay of Bengal (Lat: 10.5) (Long: 80.16) INDIA (Record: 02/1985-06/1987) (Depth: 39-55 mts)
• Bay of Bengal (Lat: 13.5) (Long: 80.46) INDIA (Record: 02/1985-06/1987) (Depth: 39-55 mts)
• Gujarat INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Wafar, MVM (2003) Checklists of reef fauna Available at - http://www.reefindia.org/
  • Rao, DV; Devi, K and Rajan, PT (2000) An account of ichthyofauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 178 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 1-434 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre Available at - http://www.unep-wcmc.org/
  • Ho, JS and Lin, CL (2000) Anuretes grandis sp.n., a caligid copepode (Siphonostomatoida) parasitic on Diagramma pictum (Pisces) in Taiwan, with discussion of Anuretes Heller, 1865 Folia Parasitologica 47 227-234 Available at - http://www.paru.cas.cz/folia/pdf/3-00/ho.pdf
  • Rouphael, T; Turak, E and Jon, B Seagrasses and mangroves of Yemen's Red Sea 41-89
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • (1994) The effect of artificial reef installation on the biosocioeconomics of small scale fisheries in Ranong province, Thailand Bay of Bengal Programme Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Letourneur, Y; Chabanet, P; Durville, P; Taquet, M; Teissier, E; Parmentier, M; Quero, JC and Pothin, K (2004) An updated checklist of the marine fish fauna of Reunion Island, south-western Indian Ocean Cybium 28(3) 199-216
  • Kemp, JM (1998) Zoogeography of the coral reef fishes of the Socotra Archipelago Journal of Biogeography 25 919-933
  • Al-Abdessalaam, TZS (1995) Marine species of the Sultanate of Oman p 412 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 2 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ad468e/ad468e00.HTM#Contents
  • Rajaram, R; Srinivasan, M; Khan, SA and Kannan, L (2004) Ichthyofaunal diversity of great Nicobar Island, Bay of Bengal Journal of Indian fisheries association 31 13-26 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rajaram, R and Nedumaran, T (2009) Ichthyofaunal diversity in great Nicobar biosphere reserve, Bay of Bengal Journal of Threatened Taxa Wildlife Information Liaison Development Society 1(3) 166-169 Available at - http://threatenedtaxa.org/ZooPrintJournal/2009/March/o198526iii09166-169.pdf
  • Bijukumar, A and Deepthi, GR (2009) Mean trophic index of fish fauna associated with trawl bycatch of Kerala, southwest coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 51(2) 145 - 154 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Balachandran, K and Nizar, MA (1990) A check list of fishes of the Exclusive Economic Zone of India collected during the research cruises of FORV Sagar Sampada Proceedings of the first workshop on scientific results of FORV Sagar Sampada CMFRI, Cochin 305-324 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/5269/1/43.pdf
  • Kizhakudan, SJ; Nair, KVS and Zala, MS Demersal Finfish Resources of Gujarat Sustainable fisheries development: Focus on Gujarat 57-66 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/6060/
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at - eprints.cmfri.org.in/3975/1/Special_Publication_No_12_Revised.pdf
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Reef Fishes Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa

Page last updated on:2011-12-09

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